Wednesday, December 3, 2008


Economic development is a branch of economics which has aims to analyze the problems faced and find ways / methods of settlement in economic development, especially in developing countries, so that economic development become faster and more harmonious. In the knowledge economy, analysis and development methods or related concerns with aspects beyond the economic field, problems such as poverty, unemployment, inequality and economic, demographic and education issues, social, cultural, political and environmental.

Economic development is economic growth that can cause changes, especially changes to the decreasing rate of population growth and changes of economic structure, good role to the establishment of national income, and it uses in the provision of employment. Todaro defines economic development as a multidimensional process that includes changes in the structure, the attitudes of life, and in addition includes the institutional improvement of economic growth, decreasing inequality of income distribution and poverty . All countries do economic development, both state that have relatively developed and undeveloped. Countries that have relatively advanced developing countries is also called, in addition to organize themselves to continue to be developed, also put a little more attention to the development countries that are still relatively undeveloped. In this case, is a developing country that is classified as low income and middle in rate <$ 4,500. Economic development efforts is to increase the living standard of a nation that is often measured with high and low per income real. Thus, the purpose of economic development in addition to increasing the national income in real terms also for increase productivity. In general, it can be said that the level of output at a certain time is determined by the availability or use of resources both natural and human resources, the level of technology, market conditions and framework of economic life or economic system and the attitude of the output itself
With the development of the economic output of a community or property or the economy will grow. Besides happiness of the population will increase because economic development is to increase chance wide selection.
Economic development can give to people greater ability to control the natural surroundings and enhance the level of their freedom to hold in a certain action. Therefore, economic development should be implemented.
Primeval people living in primitive communities and their lives come from horticulturalism and hunting with tools and methods are simple. They work hard to meet the needs of subsistence living. Initially they succeed, but because the fertility of land cultivated for agriculture, and greatly reduced the population increase, it is often because hunger there is not adequate to harvest the needs are the result of hunger, disease and death. Economic development and the ability to provide the opportunity for them to overcome these problems. With the improvement of production techniques will be more production (food) that can be produced using fewer workers. The number of infant mortality to be reduced and the level of adult mortality also declined.

Economic development rather give a freedom to choose which more extensive. In an economy that is still primitive, people forced to work hard just to maintain his life not just for the dead. With economic development will be available more opportunities to live life have fun. Besides the things mentioned above, will also be available more services that work for prepaire human needs.

In reality, women enjoy the results more economic development than the men. In countries that are relatively undeveloped, women always work weight. Like the other countries that have been advanced, some household work done with the help of equipment such as washing machine, refrigerator, and so forth, so they are not heavy burden. They are no longer with hand washing, take the water source with water every day shopping and so forth. Consequently, women have the same opportunity as well as with the men. Demand that they had to work, and working level with the men. They can educate their children better.

Economic development also allows people to have more human characteristics, because the more the number of facilities available. Persons who are expected to help other people if the need for himself has been fulfilled and there is a surplus available to other people who suffered disability because of natural disaster or poor.

With economic development will be expected to reduce the chasm of difference between countries that are grown and the countries that have been developed.

However, such, few studies have produced estimates which the developing countries even more have been aware poor, will understand the importance of economic development and strive to make this level of development will be quite high according to their ability
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Future Challenges

To realize that more banking firm, improvements must be made in various areas, especially to answer the challenges faced by banks in recent years. The challenges are as follows:

1. Capacity growth of bank credit that is still low
To achieve economic growth high enough within five years down the road, needed a bank loan growth that is large enough. Meanwhile, the ability of the banking capital india at this time indicates that credit growth high enough to achieve the difficult, if not improve the national banking capital conditions.
In addition to the barriers in terms of capital a bank, credit in many cases also hampered by the reluctance of some banks to offer loans to the bank to distribute credit risk management capabilities as core banking skills and the relatively better yet, and the operational cost is relatively high.

2. Banking structure that is not optimal
Currently optimizing the structure of banking in Indonesia marked by the banking structure is concentrated on 11 major banks, which control 75% of Indonesia's banking assets. although such small banks in this regard need to get attention because in addition to the amount that is relatively more, the banks also have a small business coverage is relatively the same with the banks but with operational capability, risk management, GCG and the relatively more limited . Similarly, Compared with other countries, the Indonesian government ownership in banks is seen quite high, even the highest in Asia. This is also the issue of segregated structure of the banking system because it can cause conflicts of interest that will disrupt the efficiency of the market.

3. Fulfilling the needs of the community to banking services that the community is still considered by the less
Lack of fulfilling the needs of the community banking waitress marked with a complaint often heard from people about rest access to credit and high interest rate credit t still many practices and the provision of informal financial services.

4. Supervision of banks that still need to be improved
Supervision of banks is also a field that needs improvement and perfection. This is because there are some principles that prudential still not implemented well management supervision is still need to be improved, the ability of the human resources that have not been optimal, and law-enforcement supervision condition, which has not been effective. Overall, efforts to increase the capability of the business is in line with Bank Indonesia to implement the 25 Basel core principles for effective banking Supervision, including improving infrastructure monitoring technology. Given the supervision of the bank sector is very dynamic and broad scope, the increasing of supervision quality is an effort that should be carried out continuously by the bank's server or by other institutions such as financial services authority (OJK) at a later time.

5. Banking capability, which is still weak
Weak capability, marked by a lack of corporate governance and core banking skills in most of the banks so that the necessary repairs on two fundamental enough it. Although the capability some big banks have been strong enough, but the capability of banking in general still below international best practices. Similarly, the bank's ability to respond to the increased operational risks still need to continue to be improved, especially the emphasis on the importance of internal controls and adherence to the principles prudential.

6. operational efficiency and profitability of the banks that are not sustainable
The level of profitability and efficiency operational achieved by banking in general is not the profitability and efficiency of the sustainable. This is caused by the weak structure of productive assets banks. Margin of banks because of the reduced interest rate trend is decreasing. The other factor is not sustainable from its efficiency and profitability is partly because the income derived from banking activities trading that fluctuate and low ratio of assets that the operational costs of banking india relatively high compared with other countries
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To encourage efficiency and Competitive Value Through Business Process Management

The development of the market moving into a very competitive business and competition in the increasingly complex and stringent challenge has been new for the company. Speed is a problem that is noteworthy how a company or organization to obtain and evaluate the information immediately, and then use the information to respond to each incident and also the problem exactly.

The problem is that often occur companies failed or were late in responding to business challenges that arise in unexpectedly. For example, many companies are very slow in detecting the existence of opportunities and new business in detecting the movement carried out by competitors.

To overcome these problems, leaders of the company is in need of a solution that can help them to see a picture of their business in a holistic and real-time, in the sense that they see in the report when it is actually a condition that the company was at that time also, not one week ago, one day ago, or even an hour ago. For the role of technology becomes vital there. The company can rely on appropriate technology to increase efficiency, improve power response, and eventually able to generate value for the company competitive.

Recently many companies have been utilizing the information technology (IT) to optimize the business processes that are owned, but sometimes they develop solutions that are still half-half. They build IT solutions in several separate systems, such as based on work units, or based on the existing business. This can cause some problems when a business when there is a process that requires the collaboration or the exchange of information in the work unit. Of course this can not be dealt with the model of IT solutions such as this.

Technology Management Business Process or Business Process Management (BPM) is the answer that is really needed and awaited the business to help their business in the face of challenges such as competition and now this. BPM is an IT solutions with a powerful new approach used to help improve efficiency and increase the value of a competitive business. BPM is designed to integrate between the employee and information system through the processes that have been very good and are very flexible. BPM is also an appropriate solution to enhance the company's response to significantly adjust the desire of the customers in every product or service is produced, by providing access to information in real-time, which can be used to identify problems and the actions to respond to the problems that occur in more quick and precise.

Business Process Management (BPM) is an approach to improve the effectiveness and efficiency through the development process automation and dexterity to manage the changes. BPM helps companies monitor and control all elements in the business process, such as employees, customers, suppliers, and Work flow. BPM improve the quality of the business through the provision of feedback mechanisms that better. Review of sustained and real-time will help the company identify problems and address them in more quickly before the problem becomes more developed
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To encourage efficiency and Competitive Value Through Business Process Management (2)

Solution Business Process Management (BPM)

Solution Business Process Management (BPM) has four main components. Modeling is the first component, where users can define and design the structure of each business process in a graphic. Managers can design a process a process with all elements, rules, sub-process, parallel processing, exception handling, handling error, Workflow and easily without the need to have the ability and special programming without the need for assistance from IT staff.

Integrating the two components are, namely BPM can connect each element in the process so that these elements can collaborate and exchange information to complete its objective. At the application level, this can be interpreted as the use of the Application Programming Interface (API) and messaging. For users, this means the availability of a workspace on the computer or wireless device to do its duty in accordance with a role in the process of business.

Supervision is the third component of the Business Process Management (BPM). Users can monitor and control the performance of the business of running and performance of each of the processes involved in the business. Users can also obtain information about the process that is running, and that has been completed, along with data that is in it.

And the last component of BPM is Optimization, namely, users can analyze and monitor a business process, a view eficiency, and also allows users to take action quickly and change the process to improve its efficiency.

Many benefits are provided when utilize the company's Business Process Management solution to this. Because BPM solutions will facilitate companies in the business process memodelkan owned, otomatication the way the business is, the way to look process, and provides a simple and fast when the company will make changes to improve business processes performance. And BPM software also helps companies to manage tasks during this still done manually. BPM solutions can be system that automates the approval and rejection, notification and reporting status.

In addition to helping companies make the exception handling and process altrnatif that are needed to tackle the problem, BPM also reduce the time required in the implementation of a business process, which can increase the productivity of each employee. Generally, the process requires a lot of business people and resources will be but a BPM solution that can both reduce the amount of resources required in a process.

Many companies make use of information technology for Optimizing the business expense, but they sometimes still build solutions with a system that is not integrated. The system is based on separate unti based on the work and business processes. This will be a pullback when the process requires a collaborative process with the other to be able to complete the process of the road. Business Process Management (BPM) solutions that are needed by companies to manage business processes that they have. With BPM companies can easily change memodelkkan and business process needs to be appropriate optimized, which in turn will reduce the outlay of production, improve customer satisfaction, improve relationships with business partners, and eventually the company is to increase profits
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